Cockroach, (order Blattodea), also called roach, any of about 4,600 species of insects that are among the most primitive living winged insects. The cockroach is characterized by a flattened oval body, long threadlike antennae, and a shining black integument. The head is bent downward, and the mouthparts point backward. The male usually has two pairs of wings, whereas the female, in some species, is wingless or has vestigial wings. Cockroaches are found in kitchens, bedrooms and store rooms.

The cockroach prefers a warm, humid, dark environment and is usually found in tropical or other mild climates. Only a few species have become pests. The insect damages more material than it consumes and emits a disagreeable odour. The diet of the roach, which includes both plant and animal products, ranges from food, paper, clothing, and books to dead insects, especially bedbugs. Insecticides are used in roach control.


Ants form colonies that range in size from a few dozen predatory individuals to highly organised colonies. A colony can consist of millions of individuals. Larger colonies consist of various castes of sterile, wingless females, most of which are workers (ergates) and soldiers (dinergates). Nearly all ant colonies also have some fertile males called "drones" and one or more fertile females called "queens". The colonies are described as super organism because the ants appear to operate as a unified entity.

Ants have colonized almost every landmass on Earth. The only places lacking indigenous ants are Antartica and a few remote or inhospitable islands. Ants thrive in most ecosystems and may form 15–25% of the terriatail animal biomass. Their success in so many environments has been attributed to their social organisation and their ability to modify habitats, tap resources, and defend themselves.